Criminologist Dr. Gary Kleck, of the University of Florida, has compiled extensive data from polls and crime statistics. He published the following:

Attack, Injury and Crime Completion Rates in Robbery Incidents

Method of           % Completed     % Attacked     % Injured    Num Times
Self Protection                                                  Used(a)

Used gun 30.9 25.2 17.4 89,009 Used Knife 35.2 55.6 40.3 59,813 Used other weapon 28.9 41.5 22.0 104,700 Used physical force 50.1 75.6 50.8 1,653,880 Tried to get help or frighten offender 63.9 73.5 48.9 1,516,141 Threatened or reasoned with offender 53.7 48.1 30.7 955,398 Nonviolent resistance, including evasion 50.8 54.7 34.9 1,539,895 Other measures 48.5 47.3 26.5 284,423 Any self-protection 52.1 60.8 38.2 4,603,671 No self-protection 88.5 41.5 24.7 2,686,960

Total 65.4 53.7 33.2 7,290,631



Attack, Injury and Crime Completion Rates in Assault Incidents
Method of            % Attacked     % Injured    Estimated
Self Protection                                 Num Times Used(a)

Used gun 23.2 12.1 386,083 Used Knife 46.4 29.5 123,062 Used other weapon 41.4 25.1 454,570 Used physical force 82.8 52.1 6,638,823 Tried to get help or frighten offender 55.2 40.1 4,383,117 Threatened or reasoned with offender 40.0 24.7 5,743,008 Nonviolent resistance, including evasion 40.0 25.5 8,935,738 Other measures 36.1 20.7 1,451,103 Any self-protection 49.5 30.7 21,801,957 No self-protection 39.9 27.3 6,154,763

Total 47.3 29.9 27,956,719


Notes: (a) Separate frequencies in these columns do add totals in the "Any self-protection" row since a single criminal incident can involve more than self-protection method. Sources: Analysis of incident files of 1979-1985 National Crime Survey public use computer tapes (ICPSR,1987b).

"Significantly, Dr. Kleck notes that the victimization surveys actually exaggerated the association of injury with gun-resistance since the surveys generally fail to ask whether the injury occurs after and because of resistance or whether the injury occurred first. In a supplemental questionnaire, however, it was found that most injuries to armed resisters preceded their resistance: "For cases involving robbery and attack, forceful self-protection actions never preceded the attack ... even the minority of the cases where forceful self-protective acts were accompanied by attacks on the victim, few incidents support the contention that the victim's defensive action provoked the attack."

As Dr. Kleck puts it in his study: "When victims use guns to resist crimes, the crimes usually are disrupted and the victims not injured." (The American Rifleman)